A Comprehensive Essay on Corruption

Corruption is an unethical act that adversely affects the economy of the nation. It is the use of unethical methods to get some advantage. It has become one of the best factors which obstructs the development of the individual and country. These types of unethical practices are like poison which born in the minds of people of the society, community and country. It is one of the big reasons for inequalities in the society and community. 

We will talk about the history, causes and forms of corruption in this blog. So let’s start; 

History of Corruption

Corruption is a very old social malady. It always existed in human society in one or the other form. It is vital to note that ‘Atharva Veda warns people to refrain from it.’ Kautilya’s ‘Arthasastra’ mentions forty modus operandi adopted by the corrupt people to misappropriate government funds. 

The Sultan of Delhi, Alauddin Khilji had to considerably increase the pay of his land revenue staff to prevent them from indulging in corruption. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, in his book ‘The Discovery of India’ has written about widespread.

A Comprehensive Essay on Corruption

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In the primitive period, the scope of public administration was minimal. As a result the scope of corruption was also limited. After Independence, with the concept of welfare state coming into existence, the scope of such bad manners widened. 

At the juncture of Independence a statesman like C Rajagopalachari called the PWD (Public Works Department) as the first enemy of the country in terms of the corruption that prevailed in that department. Nowadays, every department has become a Public Works Department.

It has crept into every fabric of society in such a way that it was the theme of speeches made by the President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of Lok Sabha during the Golden Jubilee celebrations of our Independence. 

Every Chief Election Commissioner since TN. Sheshan holds the office, has advocated the dire necessity of electoral reforms. It strikes at the grassroot level. 

Causes of Corruption

The causes of corruption are many and complex. Some of them are: 

  • Emergence of political elites who believe in interest-oriented rather than nation-oriented programmes. These policies are responsible.
  • Acceptance of people towards it and the absence of a strong public forum. Vast size of population with illiteracy and the poor economic infrastructure lead to endemic it in public life.
  • In a highly inflationary economy, low salaries of government officials compel them to resort to the road of it. Complex laws and procedures alienate common people to aim for any help from the government.
  • Big industrialist fund, politicians to meet the high cost of election. Bribery to politicians buys influence and bribery by politicians buys votes.
  • The foremost reason for the flourishing of it, is the virtual change in the thinking of the people. A total disregard to moral and ethical values. The feeling of attaining things, whether wrong and right, has encouraged most of the generation to adopt the means of it.

Forms of Corruption

It is not only accepting or giving bribes. It has many other forms. This type of unethical practices can be categorized into various forms. 

Certain companies and industries over others. Here, companies and organizations that shape and influence legislation or government policies. 

A Comprehensive Essay on Corruption

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It is also distinguished by its public or private nature. Public corruption involves public officials whereas private officials are involved in it.  

It involves misappropriation of public funds, whereas, private sector that hurts citizens’ interests.

There are the following forms of corruption exist in the world; 


It occurs when government officials illegitimately receive an undue advantage for their own personal use not regarding public interest.


It exists where a government public official acts without consideration for public interests but there is no clear monetary or other transaction between the two parties. These types of unethical practices include misappropriation, theft. breach of trust etc.

Grand and petty corruption are sub-categories of conventional corruption. 


It involves public administration officials taking bribes for completing works of the public that fall under their control. 


It involves higher ranking government officials and politicians who are in power. They exploit opportunities presented to them. Imvolvement of politicians made it grand corruption. It involves politicians preferring.

Systemic corruption 

It exists where it is routine in dealings between the government and private businesses. 

In contrast to this, individual corruption exists where it is rare and consists of a few individual acts. 


The roots of corruption are so old in the world. There are many types of corruption in the world. Grand corruption is the worst type of corruption in the world. 

Every country is fighting with this disease. They are making laws and policies to reduce it but not good results are coming. The reason behind the failure of all the laws and policies is that senior officers and politicians are involved in the it. 

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